E-ISSN 2223-0343

Comparison between intraosseous and subcutaneous excretory urography in Persian squirrels

Mehdi Tavana1, Seyedeh Zeinab Peighambarzadeh1 and Shayan Habib Savojbolaghi2

1Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Shoushtar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran; 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Thirteen hundred mg iodine/kg body weight was injected subcutaneously over shoulder area in ten clinically healthy adult Persian squirrels with no signs of urinary system disorder. Urographic examinations by the intraosseous route were performed in the same animals 7 days later. Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs were taken every 2 minutes until the pyelogram was finished. Subcutaneous injection was successful to show pyelogram, uretrogram and cystogram but it was unsuccessful in showing a diagnostic nephrogram. Optimum visualization of the renal paranchyma, calices, ureters and the urinary bladder was between 41.00±11.60 and 219.00±8.00 minutes after injection. This long range of time may help clinician to make radiographs without having stress for losing critically best time for urograms. Intraosseous injection of iodixanol was successful to show nephrogram, pyelogram, uretrogram and cystogram clearly. The optimum opacity was between 1.54±0.76 and 5.60±1.1.67 minutes after injection. There were no abnormal clinical signs after one week of the experiments. Intraosseous urography could be an effective and reliable method for small animals.

Keywords: Persian squirrels; intraosseous; subcutaneous; excretory urography
To cite this article: Tavana M, SZ Peighambarzadeh and SH Savojbolaghy, 2015. Comparison between intraosseous and subcutaneous excretory urogaphy in Persian squirrels. Res. Opin. Anim. Vet. Sci., 5(1): 25-29.

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